A CIPHER DISK is a tool used for both enciphering and deciphering that was crafted in the late 14oo’s by Leon Battista Alberti, an architect from Italy. Alberti developed a device that is made of two circular plates that are secured on top of each other. The larger of the two plates is stationary while the smaller plate moves. The very first version of the cipher disk featured copper plates and incorporated engraved lettering of the English alphabet on the rim of both disks. Having the disks crafted in such a way allows the two alphabets to move relative to one another. Doing so formed a key that is simple to utilize. This new form of encryption made encrypting and decrypting a quicker and more effortless process and cut down the chances of producing any type of blunder.
A ROTOR MACHINE is a cipher device that uses electro-mechanics to encrypt and decrypt secret memos. Rotor machines were highly used during the 1920’s to the 1970’s. The German Enigma machine used the most popular prototype. It was used during WWII to send messages to the Allies and thus yielded “Ultra,” an intelligence code.
The main portion of a rotor machine is a set of drums or wheels, coined with the term “rotors.” These rotors are disks that rotate with several different electrical meeting points on the sides. Between these meeting points there is wiring that uses an elaborate fixed replacement of lettering. The rotor machine by itself doesn’t present much defense, but once each letter has been encrypted and with the use of the rotor advance positions, the substitution is changed. By doing this, the rotor machine achieves a compound polyalphabetic exchange cipher, that differs with each keypress.
An ENIGMA MACHINE included a sequence of rotor cipher machines with electro-mechanics that was created and utilized in the early to mid 1900’s. The enigma machine was invented towards the latter part of WWI, by Arthur Scherbius, an engineer from Germany. Premier prototypes were utilized for commercial purposes and were then selected for military and governmental use in various countries across the world. Before and during WWII, the Nazis of Germany were well known for using the enigma machine. Many distinct versions of the enigma machine were created, but that of the German military versions are easiest to distinguish.
ALAN TURING was an employee for the GC & CS, (Government Code and Cypher School) during WWII. He managed a team pledged to decrypting German naval activity, and he is known for constructing several methods for cracking German ciphers. He was a key character whose deciphering of several different messages helped the Allies conquer the Nazis on many climactic occasions. It is believed that because of his proficiency and findings, WWII ended up to 4 years sooner than it could have.
The “BOMBE” MACHINE was a device utilized in WWII that used electro-mechanics to aid in cracking messages sent by Germany’s enigma machine. Years later, the United States Army and Navy created versions that were used for the same purpose but where mechanically engineered totally different than that of Germany’s and British prototypes.